A HANDBOOK FOR GROUP LEADERS (August 2002)
The purpose of this handbook is to provide practical information that might be helpful to group leaders and others, day to day, whilst taking part in an educational visit. It adds to and brings together in one place, the advice for group leaders that is spread throughout the Good Practice Guide “Health & Safety of Pupils on Educational Visits” (HASPEV). It does not cover planning arrangements before the visit, which can be found in HASPEV.
The handbook is not a substitute for training. We recommend that all group leaders have access to training before taking pupils on educational visits.
The handbook does not seek to replace local or other professional guidance or regulations. Community and voluntary controlled schools should follow LEA guidance as a first recourse. No guidance should be taken as an authoritative interpretation of the law. That is for the courts.
The handbook includes advice on supervision, ongoing risk assessment, emergency procedures, and some specific types of visit. The printed version of the handbook will be in loose-leaf style, which will allow for easy amendment when new information comes to light and for additional pages to be added on new topics. Amendments and any new topics will be posted on the web at http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/visits, from where they can be downloaded and printed for inclusion in the handbook.
Like HASPEV, the supplement can be adopted or adapted by LEAs or others for their own purposes. Please acknowledge the Department as the source for any such use and declare any local variation of the text.
Enquiries about the content of this Supplement should be addressed to the Department’s Pupil Health and Safety Team on 020 7925 5536.
Head counts etc.
The Buddy System
ONGOING RISK ASSESSMENT
Check the local weather forecast
Behaviour problems, illness or injury
Emergency procedures framework during the visit
ADVICE ON SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES
Swimming in the sea or other natural waters
HASPEV Chapter 3 and Standards for Adventure give advice on supervision ratios, vetting suitability of supervisors and brief advice on responsibilities, competence, head counts and remote supervision. This section aims to give more practical advice on supervision 'in the field'.
The Group leader is responsible overall for the group at all times. In delegating supervisory roles to other adults in the group, it is good practice for the group leader to:
- allocate supervisory responsibility to each adult for named pupils;
- ensure that each adult knows which pupils they are responsible for;
- ensure that each pupil knows which adult is responsible for them;
- ensure that all adults understand that they are responsible to the group leader for the supervision of the pupils assigned to them;
- ensure that all adults and pupils are aware of the expected standards of behaviour.
It is good practice for each supervisor to:
- have a reasonable prior knowledge of the pupils including any special educational needs, medical needs or disabilities;
- carry a list/register of all group members;
- directly supervise the pupils (except during remote supervision) - particularly important when they are mingling with the public and may not be easily identified;
- regularly check that the entire group is present;
- have a clear plan of the activity to be undertaken and its educational objectives;
- have the means to contact the group leader/other supervisors if needing help;
- have prior knowledge of the venue – the group leader should normally have made an exploratory visit, see Standards for LEAs in Overseeing Educational Visits;
- anticipate a potential risk by recognising a hazard, by arriving, where necessary, at the point of hazard before the pupils do, and acting promptly where necessary;
- continuously monitor the appropriateness of the activity, the physical and mental condition and abilities of the group members and the suitability of the prevailing conditions;
- be competent to exercise appropriate control of the group, and to ensure that pupils abide by the agreed standards of behaviour;
- clearly understand the emergency procedures and be able to carry them out;
- have appropriate access to First Aid;
Each pupil should:
- know who their supervisor is at any given time and how to contact him or her;
- have been given clear, understandable and appropriate instructions
- rarely if ever be on their own;
- alert the supervisor if someone is missing or in difficulties;
- have a meeting place to return to, or an instruction to remain where they are, if separated;
- understand and accept the expected standards of behaviour.
Head counts etc.
Whatever the length and nature of the visit, regular head counting of pupils should take place, particularly before leaving any venue. It is good practice for all supervisors to:
- carry a list/register of all pupils and adults involved in the visit at all times;
- ensure that pupils are readily identifiable, especially if the visit is to a densely populated area. Brightly coloured caps, T-shirts or a school uniform can help identify group members more easily;
- avoid identification that could put pupils at risk e.g. name badges (though some schools find it useful to provide pupils with badges displaying the name of the school or hotel and an emergency contact number, or for visits abroad a note in the language of the country being visited);
- ensure that all pupils are aware of rendezvous points;
- ensure that all pupils know what to do if they become separated from the group.
Each child is paired with a buddy. Each regularly checks that the other is present and is OK. A variant of this is the ‘circle buddy’ system – the pupils form a circle at the start of the visit so that each pupil has a left side buddy and a right side buddy. He or she will check on these when asked. Thus two pupils cannot vanish together and not be missed (as might happen with paired buddies).
Supervision can be close or remote but is always 24 hours:
- close supervision occurs when the group remain within sight and contact of the supervisor;
- remote supervision occurs when, as part of planned activities, a group works away from the supervisor but is subject to stated controls (e.g. during certain Duke of Edinburgh’s Award expeditions). The supervisor is present though not necessarily near or in sight, but his or her whereabouts are known;
- down time (or recreational time) – for example during the evenings – may involve close or remote supervision, but should not be unsupervised - the supervisors continue to be in charge;
- it is essential that everyone involved in the visit understands the supervision arrangements and expectations.
When supervision is remote:
- groups should be sufficiently trained and assessed as competent for the level of activity to be undertaken, including first aid and emergency procedures. Remote supervision will normally be the final stage of a phased development programme;
- pupils will be familiar with the environment or similar environments and have details of the rendezvous points and the times of rendezvous;
- clear and understandable boundaries will be set for the group;
- there must be clear lines of communication between the group, the supervisor and the school. Do not rely exclusively on mobile phones;
- the supervisor should monitor the group’s progress at appropriate intervals;
- the supervisor will be in the expedition or activity area and able to reach the group reasonably promptly should the group need support in an emergency;
- there should be a recognisable point at which the activity is completed;
- there should be clear arrangements for the abandonment of the activity where it cannot be safely completed.
Potential danger points can occur when rearranging groups. In particular:
- when a large group is split into smaller groups for specific activities;
- when groups transfer from one activity to another and change supervisor;
- during periods between activities;
- when small groups re-form into a large group.
It is therefore important that the supervisor:
- clearly takes responsibility for the group when their part of the programme begins, particularly making certain that all group members are aware of the changeover;
- clearly passes on responsibility for the group when their part of the programme is concluded, together with any relevant information ensuring that the group members know who their next leader is.
Group leaders should ensure that pupils continue to be properly supervised during downtime before, between and after activities, including the evenings on residential visits. A group occupied in study or activity is far safer than a group left to its own devices in an unfamiliar environment. Too much unstructured free time in a residential programme can allow time for mischief, bullying, homesickness and wandering off from the body of the group. It is good practice to:
- ensure that all staff and pupils understand the standards of behaviour that apply at all times, not just during activities;
- ensure that handover between activities is properly supervised, with a named supervisor responsible for the group if there is down-time between activities;
- ensure that all supervisors understand that their supervisory role continues in the evening – however hard a day it has been, that it is not a time to relax in the bar or in front of the TV;
- use down-time in the evening or at the beginning of the day to brief the group on the planned activities for the day to come, e.g. the planned learning outcomes, specific health and safety issues, meal and break times etc.;
- use down time after activities for individual reflection on personal learning outcomes, and group discussion about the highs and lows of the day;
- apply the advice contained in “Remote Supervision” above, adapted as necessary, if it is felt reasonable to allow pupils some time without close supervision;
- occupy the group with mildly active, non-academic activities in the evening, e.g. craft activities, environmental activities, quizzes, team challenges, led-walks.
Group leaders should ensure that:
- the group’s immediate accommodation is exclusively for the group’s use;
- teachers (of both genders where appropriate) have sleeping accommodation on the same floor immediately adjacent to the pupils’ accommodation;
- there is a teacher present on that floor whenever the pupils are there;
- child protection arrangements are in place to protect both pupils and staff;
- where hotel/hostel reception is not staffed 24 hours a day, security arrangements should be in force to stop unauthorised visits;
- in the absence of 24 hour staffing of reception, external doors must be made secure against intrusion and windows closed as necessary to prevent intrusion;
- where possible, internal doors are lockable but staff must have reasonable access to the pupil accommodation at all times;
- where pupils’ doors are locked, teachers have immediate access, as necessary, to a master key;
- all staff and pupils know the emergency procedures/escape routes in the event of a fire. Where windows and doors are locked against intrusion at night, ensure that alternative escape routes are known and that all fire doors function properly.
Don’t be lulled into a sense of false security by local assurances, such as “no need to lock doors in this part of the country”. The presence of the group may attract unwelcome attention that is unusual in the locality.
A driver cannot safely drive and supervise children at the same time. Group leaders should ensure that:
- transport by road has seat belts and that the pupils wear them;
- there is adequate supervision at all times when travelling;
- supervisors are reserved seats that allow them to supervise properly;
- pupils are supervised when boarding and leaving;
- extra care is taken when leaving a vehicle in a country that drives on the right as some doors may open onto the road side;
- standards of behaviour are met, and in particular that drivers are not distracted;
- smoking/alcohol etc. bans are observed;
- pupils are occupied on long journeys – this will help the journey pass quickly;
- evacuation procedures are clearly understood by everyone, luggage is securely stored and emergency exits are kept clear;
- there are adequate rest stops for drivers;
- head counts are carried out when the group is getting off or onto transport.
ONGOING RISK ASSESSMENT
HASPEV chapter 2 paragraphs 37-46, and Standards for LEAs in Overseeing Educational Visits deal with risk assessment. Risk assessment does not end when the visit begins. Changes to the itinerary, changes to the weather, incidents (whether minor or major), staff illness – all or any of these may bring pupils face to face with unexpected hazards or difficulties and give rise to the need to re-assess risk.
The group leader (and other adults with responsibility) prepares ongoing risk assessments while the visit is taking place. These normally consist of judgements and decisions made as the need arises. They are not usually recorded until after the visit. They should be informed by the generic and visit or site specific risk assessments.
It is good practice to have briefings each night to take stock and assess the circumstances for the next day, and to spend time early the next morning explaining arrangements to the pupils.
Check the local weather forecast
- to inform decisions on appropriate clothing
- to be aware of whether water activities might be in areas prone to flash floods, high winds etc.;
- to be aware of whether trekking or climbing at altitude might be subject to dramatic changes of weather; potential for fallen trees, avalanches etc.
Seek local knowledge of potential hazards, e.g.
- rivers/streams prone to sudden increases in flow;
- difficult terrain;
- crossing points for road, rail or water;
- unstable cliffs
- good forward planning will always include alternative plans in case the itinerary needs to be changed;
- a flexible itinerary can allow activities from later in the visit to be substituted for earlier activities if those are prevented by unexpected circumstances;
- group leaders faced with potential difficulties will feel more confident to change the itinerary if a pre-assessed alternative is available;
- regardless of whether alternatives have been pre-assessed, always take time to reassess risks if the itinerary changes;
- on arrival at an alternative site or activity that has not previously been risk assessed, we recommend that the group leader should risk assess the situation before allowing the pupils to disembark from the transport;
- an unknown location might involve hazards not covered in the original risk assessment, for example if the original intention to visit a land-only site has to be changed at short notice to a lake or seaside location.
Behaviour problems, illness or injury
- poor behaviour may be reduced by ensuring that all pupils are signed up to agreed standards of behaviour before (or at least at the beginning of) the visit;
- educational visits can be a good opportunity for school staff to get to know pupils away from the confines of the school. But the group leader should resist any temptation to accept lower standards of behaviour. The different hazards that pupils may be exposed to away from the school will require them to observe standards of behaviour that are at least as high as, or higher than, in the classroom;
- if one adult has to give prolonged attention to one group member, the group leader should reassess the supervisory roles of the other adults to ensure that all members of the group know who is responsible for them. Activities may need to be amended until the other adult returns all of his or her attention to the group;
- group leaders should trust their own knowledge of the young people and use their own professional judgement;
- this may include challenging an activity leader where the group leader’s knowledge of the group is superior, or intervening to prompt a change of plan.
See HASPEV Chapter 10 and Standards for LEAs in Overseeing Educational Visits. By their nature, emergencies are usually unexpected. But careful emergency planning can mitigate the trauma of being caught up in an emergency. It is good practice for the group leader to:
- agree an emergency action plan, which includes 24-hour (i.e. constant cover) contact points at the school/LEA and clear roles for the group leader, school/LEA contact, head teacher e.g. managing media interest, supporting parents of an injured pupil, transport arrangements etc.;
- ensure that all members of the group know what action to take if there is a problem;
- hold evening briefings with supervisors to discuss issues for the next day;
- spend time early the next morning explaining arrangements to the pupils;
- hold, or ensure that other adults in the group hold, up-to date competence in first aid and other life saving competence as necessary for the activities;
- ensure that the first aid kit is properly stocked and accessible (see Guidance on First Aid for Schools, paragraph 60 http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/firstaid);
- ensure that all pupils’ medical needs (e.g. asthma, diabetes, anaphylaxis) are known and that staff are competent to handle them (see Supporting Pupils with Medical Needs: A Good Practice Guide http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/medical);
- be aware that some diseases are more common in some countries and know what preventative action to take and what to do if a group member becomes infected;
- recognise that many of the health problems of pupils on longer visits are caused by lack of food, of liquid or of sleep;
- if appropriate, advise group members about the dangers of over-exertion in the heat and of dehydration, which can cause headache, dizziness and nausea;
- in warm climates, keep fluid levels high, take extra salt and wear loose, lightweight clothing – preferably made of cotton or other natural fibres – and use suitably factored sun protection creams and sun hats/glasses;
- ensure that drivers take adequate rest breaks on long journeys;
- ensure that all pupils understand and follow the code of conduct;
- practice emergency drills e.g. evacuation of mini-bus;
If abroad, know where the nearest British Embassy or Consulate is located and the telephone number. Depending on the age of the pupils, it may be appropriate to ensure that they have this information to hand.
Emergency procedures framework during the visit If an emergency occurs on a school visit the group leader should maintain or resume control of the group overall. The main factors to consider include:
- establish the nature and extent of the emergency as quickly as possible;
- ensure that all the group are safe and looked after;
- establish the names of any casualties and get immediate medical attention;
- ensure that a teacher accompanies casualties to hospital with any relevant medical information, and that the rest of the group are adequately supervised at all times and kept together;
- notify the police if necessary;
- ensure that all group members who need to know are aware of the incident;
- ensure that all group members are following the emergency procedures and the roles allocated to them – revise procedures and re-allocate roles as necessary;
- inform the school contact and provider/tour operator (as appropriate). The school contact number should be accessible at all times during the visit;
- details of the incident to pass on to the school should include: nature, date and time of incident; location of incident; names of casualties and details of their injuries; names of others involved so that parents can be reassured; action taken so far; action yet to be taken (and by whom);
- school contact should notify parents, providing as full a factual account of the incident as possible;
- notify insurers, especially if medical assistance is required (this may be done by the school contact);
- notify the British Embassy/Consulate if an emergency occurs abroad;
- ascertain phone numbers for future calls. Try not to rely solely on mobile phones;
- write down accurately and as soon as possible all relevant facts and witness details and preserve any vital evidence;
- keep a written account of all events, times and contacts after the incident;
- complete an accident report form as soon as possible. Contact HSE or local authority inspector, if appropriate;
- no-one in the group should speak to the media. Names of those involved in the incident should not be given to the media as this could cause distress to their families. Refer media enquiries to a designated media contact in the home area;
- no-one in the group should discuss legal liability with other parties, nor sign anything relating to accident liability without clear advice from their LEA;
- keep receipts for any expenses incurred – insurers will require these.
ADVICE ON SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES
HASPEV chapter 8 “Types of Visit” has advice on coastal visits at paragraphs 181-2. HASPEV states: “…many of the incidents affecting pupils have occurred by or in the sea. There are dangers on the coast quite apart from those incurred in swimming.”
The group leader will want to bear the following points in mind when assessing the risks of a coastal activity:
- tides, rip tides and sandbanks are potential hazards; timings and exit routes should be checked;
- group members should be aware of warning signs and flags;
- establish a base on the beach to which members of the group may return if separated;
- look out for hazards such as glass, barbed wire and sewage outflows etc;
- some of a group’s time on a beach may be recreational. Group leaders should consider which areas of the terrain are out of bounds, and whether the risk assessment allows swimming in the sea;
- cliff tops can be highly dangerous for school groups even during daylight. The group should keep to a safe distance from the cliff edge at all times – a “buffer zone” between the pupils and the hazard. Be aware that cliff falls can mean that cliff paths stop abruptly at the cliff edge;
- group leaders should not normally allow pupils to ride mountain bikes on any route that is near a sheer drop e.g. coastal path or canal towpath. If the risk assessment indicates that the risk could be managed adequately, then there should be a small known group of skilled and experienced riders accompanied by appropriately qualified staff;
- the local coastguard, harbour master, lifeguard or tourist information office can provide information and advice on the nature and location of hazards.
Swimming in the sea or other natural waters
Swimming and paddling or otherwise entering the waters of river, canal, sea or lake should never be allowed as an impromptu activity. The pleas of children to be allowed to bathe – because it is hot weather, for example, or after a kayaking exercise - should be resisted where the bathing has not been prepared for. In-water activities should take place only when a proper risk assessment has been completed and proper measures put in to control the risks. The activities should be formal and supervised.
It is good practice that, wherever possible, group leaders seek out recognised bathing areas that have official surveillance i.e. qualified lifeguard cover. But, even then, group leaders should be aware that pupils might mingle with members of the public and be lost to view. Pupils should always be in sight and reasonable reach of their supervisors.
The group leader should:
- be aware that many children who drown are strong swimmers;
- ascertain for themselves the level of the pupils’ swimming ability;
- check the weather;
- be aware of the local conditions – such as currents, weeds, rip tides, a shelving, uneven or unstable bottom – using local information from the lifeguard, coastguard, harbourmaster, police or tourist information office;
- beware of rocks, breakwaters and other potential hazards;
- look out for warning signs and flags: a red flag means it is unsafe to swim; yellow flags mean that lifeguards are on patrol in the area between the flags; a black and white flag means it is an area used by surfers and not suitable for swimming;
- designate a safe area of water for use by the group;
- brief the group about the limits of the swimming area;
- avoid crowded beaches where it is harder to see pupils;
- be aware of the dangerous effects of sudden immersion in cold water;
- be aware of the dangers of paddling especially for young pupils;
- ensure that pupils have not eaten (at least half an hour) before swimming;
- ensure the activity is suitable for the pupils, especially any with special needs or disabilities;
- adopt and explain the signals of distress and recall;
- ensure that buoyancy aids, lifejackets etc. are used where appropriate;
- carry out regular head counts;
- be aware that it is not always possible to tell when someone is in difficulties.
- have clear roles – at least one supervisor should always stay out of the water for better surveillance, even where lifeguards are on duty;
- take up a best position from which to exercise a constant vigilance;
- divide their careful watching between staff who stand in the sea and look landward towards the group and staff who stay on land and watch the group from that vantage point;
- give the children their full, undivided attention;
- always follow the advice or directions of a lifeguard;
- never swim themselves unless it is to help a child in distress;
- not join in any of the children’s games;
- ensure that no child is allowed to wade out or swim further than his or her waist height;
- nevertheless, be aware that it is possible to drown in one’s own depth, and to act immediately when a child appears to be in difficulties;
- ensure that children leave the water immediately if they get too cold, especially if toes and fingers look blue or feel numb - could suggest the onset of hypothermia;
- recognise that a child in difficulty is unlikely to wave or shout – all of their energies will be in trying to keep afloat.
It is good practice for the group leader, or another designated adult in the group, to hold a relevant life saving award, especially where lifeguard cover may not be available. For further advice contact the: The Royal Lifesaving Society UK, River House, High St, Broom, Warwickshire B50 4HN (Tel: 01789 773994) http://www.lifesavers.org.uk/
'There is a seasonal increase in the number of cases of E.coli 0157 infection, and there is a link between farm visits and infection in young children. This means that some simple and sensible precautions should be taken.' - Chief Medical Officer -12 April 2000Group Leaders should check the provision at the farm to ensure that:
- eating areas are separate from those where there is any contact with animals;
- there are adequate clean and well-maintained washing facilities;
- there is clear information for visitors on the risks and the precautions to take.
- there is adequate trained adult supervision wherever children can come into contact with animals and need to wash their hands;
- all children wash their hands thoroughly immediately after touching animals and before any eating or drinking;
- shoes are cleaned and then hands are washed on leaving the farm.
Never let pupils:
- place their faces against the animals;
- put their hands in their own mouths after touching or feeding the animals;
- eat or drink while going round the farm;
- eat or drink until they have washed their hands;
- sample any animal foodstuffs;
- drink from farm taps (other than in designated public facilities);
- touch animal droppings - if they do then wash and dry hands;
- ride on tractors or other machines;
- play in the farm area, or in other areas that are out of bounds such as grain storage tanks, slurry pits etc.
The Chief Medical Officer’s revised guidance suggests:
- individual supervision by an adult for every child younger than 12 months;
- a supervision ratio of one adult for two children for children between ages one and two;
- gradually increasing ratios up to one adult for eight children for children between ages five and eight;
- higher standards for washing facilities.
FURTHER INFORMATION Department for Education and Skills
Health & Safety of Pupils on Educational Visits (HASPEV), and supplement
Health & Safety: Responsibilities & Powers http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/responsibilities
Guidance on First Aid for Schools http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/firstaid
Supporting Pupils with Medical Needs: A Good Practice Guide http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/medical
Work experience: A guide for secondary schools 2002
Work Experience: A guide for employers 2002
Child Protection: Preventing Unsuitable People from Working with Children and Young Persons in the Education Service. DfES May 2002.
Safety Education Guidance Leaflet
Chief Medical Officer Advice on Farm Visits: A Department of Health Press Notice 12 April 2000.
Guidance to the Licensing Authority on the Adventure Activities Licensing Regulations 1996 (HSC £9)
A Guide to Risk Assessment Requirements - http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg218.pdf
Avoiding ill health at open farms: Advice to teachers AIS23 new edition 28 June 2000 of advice mentioned in HASPEV).
Five Steps to Risk Assessment . (http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg163.pdf)
Adventure activities centres; five steps to risk assessment (£4.50)
The New General Teaching Requirement for Health and Safety, QCA/HSE, 1999
Managing Health and Safety in Swimming Pools revised edition 1999. HSG 179 £10.50
Reducing Risk Protecting People 2001
Preparing Young People for a Safer Life (issued with Cheshire County Council and The Institute of Occupational Safety and Health – tel 0116 257 3100). This has a model risk assessment for a sponsored walk.
Adventure activities centres: five steps to risk assessment (£4.50)
Adventure Activities Industry Advisory Committee (AAIAC): Statement of Risk Perception in Adventure and Outdoor Activities
Information about adventure activity providers covered by the Adventure Activities Licensing Scheme http://www.aala.org.uk
The Wales Tourist Board, the Scottish Tourist Board and the British Activity Holiday Association (see next) provide voluntary inspection schemes to complement licensing for providers of activities that are out of scope of licensing
The British Activity Holiday Association, 22 Green Lane, Hersham, Surrey, KT12 5HD. Tel/Fax: 01932 252994.www.baha.org.uk
Safe Supervision for Teaching and Coaching Swimming. Amateur Swimming Association and others. 2nd edition 2001 Tel: 01509 618700. Advice on ratios in HASPEV paragraph 187, which are pupil year-based, should be read in conjunction with the competence-based ratios in Safe Supervision
The Royal Lifesaving Society UK, River House, High St, Broom, Warwickshire B50 4HN (Tel: 01789 773994) http://www.lifesavers.org.uk/
Minibus Safety: A Code of Practice - RoSPA and others 2002 www.rospa.com/pdfs/road/minibus.pdf
Safety on School Trips A Teachers and the Law Booklet - The Professional Association of Teachers. Revised edition 2002
Educational Visits - NASUWT 2001
Guidance published by the National Governing Bodies (NGBs) for various adventure activities as in HASPEV. NGBs also maintain leader training and assessment programmes.
Safe and Responsible Expeditions and Guidelines for Youth Expeditions - Young Explorers’ Trust, c/o RGS-IBG Expedition Advisory Centre. £5 inc. p & p or free from website: http://www.rgs.org
The Royal Geographical Society (with IBG)’s Expedition Advisory Centre, 1 Kensington Gore, London SW7 2AR provides advice, information and training to anyone planning an overseas expedition. Tel 020 7591 3030 http://www.rgs.org/
The Duke of Edinburgh’s Award has its own clear structure, procedures and guidelines http://www.theaward.org/.
Guidance is produced by many of the voluntary youth organisations
Guidelines for Off-Site Educational Visits and Activities in the United Kingdom Nottinghamshire CC September 2001 has a section on camping pages 75-79.
Safe Kids Campaign Report 2000, Child Accident Prevention Trust
Transport for London provides free transport for school groups on the underground, buses, Thameslink and the Docklands Light Railway. The advice line for the scheme is 0207 918 3954 and the website is at www.tfl.gov.uk/schoolparty. The general travel advice line can offer information on route planning and station layouts. Apart from its commitment to the safety of its passengers Transport for London does not offer specific advice on health and safety for school groups but refers them to HASPEV and HSE risk assessment guidance.
The Waterways Code (leaflet) and The Waterways Code for Boaters (video) are available from British Waterways - email@example.com - tel: 01923 201120
The Suzy Lamplugh Trust has produced a range of guidance on personal safety, including booklets, videos and training courses http://www.suzylamplugh.org