Age-Sex Pyramid (Population Pyramid): a series of
horizontal bars that illustrate the structure of a population. The horizontal
bars represent different age categories, which are placed on either side of a
central vertical axis. Males are to the left of the axis, females to the right.
Ageing Population: In the population structure of many
MEDCs there is often a high proportion of elderly people who have survived due
to advances in nutrition and medical care. This creates problems since these
people do not work and have to be provided with pensions, medical care, social
support, sheltered housing etc. from the taxes paid by a proportionally smaller
number of workers. In addition, an increasing number of young people are
employed as care workers for the elderly. This removes them from more productive
jobs within the economy and harms a country's competitiveness.
Ageing Population Structure: a population pyramid with a
narrower shape, broad at the top, found in MEDCs. This reflects their low birth
rates and the greater proportion of elderly people.
Birth Rate: The number of live births per 1000 people
Bulge of Young Male Migrants: on a population pyramid;
young males move to urban areas due to push-pull factors.
Census: a counting of people by the government every ten
years to gather data for planning of schools, hospitals, etc. This is unreliable
for a number of reasons.
Child Dependency ratio: the number of children in
relation to the number of working (economically active) population, usually
expressed as a ratio.
Concentrated Population Distribution: where people are
grouped densely in an urbanised area (see Port, Bridging-Point, Route Centre,
Wet Point Site, Market Town, Mining Town, Resort).
Contraception: using birth control to stop pregnancy.
Counter-urbanisation movement of people in MEDCs away
from urban areas to live in smaller towns and villages (see de-urbanisation and
Death rate: the number of deaths per 1000 people per
Demographic transition: the change from high birth rates
and death rates to low birth rates and death rates.
Demographic Transition Model: diagram which shows the
relationship between birth and death rates and how changes in these affect the
Dependency ratio: the ratio between those of working age
and those of non-working age. This is calculated as:
% pop aged 0 -14 + % pop aged 65+
% of population aged 15-65
Dependent Population: those who rely on the working
population for support e.g. the young and elderly.
Depopulation: the decline orreduction of
population in an area.
De-urbanisation: the process in MEDCs by which an
increasingly smaller percentage of a country’s population lives in towns and
cities, brought about by urban-rural migration. (See Counter-Urbanisation
and Urban-Rural Shift).
Dispersed Population Distribution: the opposite of a
concentrated distribution; the population may be spread evenly over a fertile
farming area, rather than concentrated in an urban centre. Dispersed population
distributions tend to be of low density.
Distribution (of a population): where people are found
and where they are not found.
Economic Migrant: person leaving her/his native country
to seek better economic opportunities (jobs) and so settle temporarily in
Emigrant: someone who leaves an area to live elsewhere.
Ethnic Group: the group of people a person belongs to
categorised by race, nationality, language, religion or culture.
Family Planning: using contraception to control the size
of your family.
Family Ties: the lack of family ties (no wife or
children) encourages young males to migrate from LEDCs to MEDCs or from rural to
urban areas to seek a better life. The young (20-35) are also best-suited
physically to heavy unskilled/semi-skilled work. See Guest-Worker.
Fertile Age Group: the child-bearing years of women,
normally 18-45 years of age.
Ghetto: an urban district containing a high proportion
of one particular ethnic group. The term ghetto comes from the district of Geto
in medieval Venice which was reserved for Jews.
Gross National Product (GNP) per capita: the total value
of goods produced and services provided by a country in a year, divided by the
total number of people living in that country.
Guest-Worker Migration: people leaving their country to
work in another land but not to settle: the term is associated with
unskilled/semi -skilled labour.
Human Development Index: a social welfare index, adopted
by the United Nations as a measure of development, based upon life expectancy
(health), adult literacy (education), and real GNP per capita (economic).
Immigrant: someone who moves into an area from
Infant Mortality: the number of babies dying before
their first birthday per 1000 live births.
Life Expectancy: the average number of years a person
born in a particular country might be expected to live.
Literacy Rate: the proportion of the total population
able to read and write.
Malnutrition: ill-health caused by a diet deficiency,
either in amount (quantity) or balance (quality).
Migrant: someone who moves from one place to another to
Migration: movement of people.
Model: a theoretical representation of the real world in
which detail and scale are simplified in order to help explain reality.
Natural Increase or Decrease: the difference between the
birth rate and the death rate. Additional effects of migration are not included.
Natural Population Change: the difference in number
between those who are born and those who die in a year. Additional effects of
migration are not included.
Net Migration: the difference between the number of
emigrants and the number of immigrants.
New Commonwealth: the more recent members of Britain’s
Commonwealth (ex-colonies, now independent), including countries such as India
and Pakistan and the West Indian islands.
Overpopulation: where there are too many people and not
enough resources to support a satisfactory quality of life.
Population Change: Births - Deaths + In-Migration -
Out-Migration = Population Change.
Population Density: number of people per square
Population Pyramid: a graph which shows the age and sex
structure of a place.
Push-Pull Factors: push factors encourage or force
people to leave a particular place; pull factors are the economic and social
attractions (real and imagined) offered by the location to which people move
(i.e. the things which attract someone to migrate to a place).
Quality of Life: things (e.g. housing) that affect your
standard of living.
Quality of Life Index: a single number or score used to
place different countries in rank order based on their quality of life. Various
indicators are included, e.g. GNP per person, calorie intake, life expectancy,
access to health care, number of doctors per 100,000 etc.
Racial Prejudice: thinking unpleasant things about
people because of the colour of their skin and/or their ethnic group without
Racism: unfair, ridiculing or threatening behaviour
towards someone because oi their particular racial group.
Refugees: people forced to move from where they live to
Repatriation: a government policy of returning
immigrants to their country of origin.
Rural Depopulation: people leaving the countryside
usually to live in towns (ie. rural-urban migration).
Rural Population Structure: young males move to urban
areas due to push-pull factors. This creates a characteristic indentation in the
20-35 age group population structure.
Segregation: where immigrant groups such as Turks in
Germany become increasingly isolated in inner city areas, of poor housing (see
Sparsely Populated: an area that has few people living
Sterilisation: a method of contraception: in men an
operation prevents sperm from being released, and in women an operation stops
the production of eggs.
Structure (of a population): the relative percentages of
people of different age groups, usually shown on a population pyramid.
Urban-Rural Shift: the movement of people out of towns
in MEDCs to seek a better quality of life living in the countryside. Some work
from home using telecommunications technology; most travel into the city each
day as commuters, contributing to the rush hour.
Urbanisation: the growth of towns and cities leading to
an increasing proportion of a country’s population living there. It as a
gradual process common in LEDCs where 1 million people move from the countryside
to the cities every three days.
Urban Population Structure: young males move to urban
areas due to push-pull factors. This creates a characteristic population pyramid
bulge in the 20-35 age range.
Voluntary Migration: where people move to another area
Working Population: people in employment who have to
support the dependent population.
Youthful Population: in the population structure of
LEDCs, there is often a higher proportion of young people due to high birth
rates and a reduction in infant mortality due to better nutrition, education and
medical care. This may create problems since the children need feeding, housing,
education and eventually a job. Medical care and education has to be paid for by
taxing a proportionally small number of workers.
Youthful Population Structure: seen as a wide base on
population pyramids that reflect high birth rates in LEDCs.