Active Volcano: Avolcano that has erupted
recently and is likely to erupt again.
Agriculture: The growing of crops and rearing of
Amenities: services that people find very useful, but
are not essential, like swimming pools, libraries, parks, etc..
Arable Farming: A farm or area that only grows crops.
Attractive Countryside: Areas of pleasant scenery such
as mountains rivers, lakes and coasts.
Birth Rate: The number of people being born for each
1,000 of the population.
Bridging Point: An easy crossing point where the river
narrows or is shallower.
Business Park: New officesbuilt in pleasant
surroundings on the edge of cities.
Capital: The amount of money belonging to a country,
factory or a person.
Cardinal Points: The four main points of the compass:
(N., S., E., W.)
CBD: Central Business District. This is the centre of a
town or city where the main roads meet. It has the most shops, offices and
Clean-up: A method of getting rid of pollution.
Commercial Centre: Where business activities such as
shops and services are concentrated.
Communications: The ways in which people, goods and
ideas move from one place to another. It usually refers to roads and railways.
Confluence: Where one river joins another.
Confluence Town: A town that grows where two rivers
Congestion: Overcrowding on roads causing traffic jams.
Conservation: The protection of the environment.
Conservationist: People who care for and look after the
Continent: A large area of land. There are seven
continents: North and South America; Asia; Europe; Africa; Australia;
Contour: A line drawn on a map to join places of the
same height above sea-level.
Conurbation: Two cities that grow and eventually merge
Cross-section: A diagram showing by means of a side view
the slopes and heights of the land surface.
Death Rate: The number of people dying per 1,000 of the
Defensive Site: Aplace where a settlement can be
easily defended against attack such as on a hilltop or surrounded by water.
Delta: A flat area of deposited river silt found at the
mouth of a river.
Densely Populated: An area that is crowded.
Density: A measure of how close together people live in
Deposition: The laying down of material carried by
rivers, sea, ice or wind.
Deposition Landforms: Landscape features made up of
material that has been deposited by rivers, sea, ice or wind.
Drought: A long spell of dry weather resulting in a
serious water shortage.
Dry Point Site: A patch of dry ground which is firm
enough to build on. It is often near rivers on higher ground above the level of
Earthquakes: A movement or tremor, of the Earth’s
Economic Activity: This is about industry, jobs, earning
a living and producing wealth.
Energy: The power to do something to give off heat.
Environment: The natural or physical surroundings where
people, plants and animals live.
Erosion: The wearing away and removal of rock, soil,
etc, by rivers, sea, ice and wind.
Erosion Landforms: Landscape features resulting from the
wearing away of rock.
European Union: A group of European countries working
together for the benefit of everyone in the group.
Extinct: No longer be found living on the planet.
Facilities: Services that are people feel are essential
such as toilets, heating, telephones etc..
Factories: Places where things are made from natural
resources and raw materials.
Fertile: Land or soil where crops can be grown
Flood Plain: The flat area at the bottom of a valley
which is often flooded.
Food Mountains and Lakes: Surplus supplies of farm
products that are stored.
Ford: A crossing where the river is shallow.
Fossil Fuels: Fuels from the remains of plants or
Frontier (Border): The boundary around a country.
Function: The reason for something to be somewhere. It
isits use or purpose such as a port, market, industry or tourism.
Gap: This is a low point along a line of hills or
mountains through which roads and railways can pass through.
Gap Town: a town that grows at a gap in the hills.
Goods: Things made by people to sell in a market.
Gradient: The slope of the land.
Green Belt: A protected area of countryside around a
city where new building is not allowed to try and stop the spread of a city.
grid is a pattern of squares on your map which serve to fix your position.
Coordinates will provide numbers that allow you to find a horizontal line and
also a vertical line and follow them to the point of intersection, placing you
at the bottom left-hand corner (south-west) of a particular grid.
Grid References: Any location in the United Kingdom can
be described in terms of its distance from the origin (0,0), which lies to the
west of the Scilly Isles. Grid references are always presented in terms of eastings
(distance east from the origin) and northings (distance north from the
origin). Increasing easting numbers indicate you are heading east; decreasing
indicate you are heading west. Increasing northing numbers indicate you are
heading north; decreasing indicate you are heading south.
Gross National Product (GNP): The wealth of a country.
Its total income divided by its total population.
High Birth Rate: A lot of babies born for each 1000 of
High-tech Industries: Industries using advanced machines
and skilled people, e.g. computers and electronics.
Historic Sites: Important old settlements and buildings
which are interesting to people.
Human Features/Activities: The actions and results of
humans especially where and how people live.
Hydro-electricPower: Energy obtained from using
the power of water.
Impermeable: A rock that will not let groundwater pass
through it. Clay is a good example.
Income: What a person or country earns or gains in money
from working, selling or trading.
Industry: a general term for working and making money.
Industrialised: Using machines and power (energy) to
Infant Mortality Rate: The number of children out of
every 1000 born alive that die before they reach the age of one year.
Infertile: Poor soil or land in which crops won’t grow
Information Technology(IT): The exchange of
ideas and information.
Intensive Farming: Farms which cover small areas but
which use either many people or a lot of capital (money). No land is wasted.
Isolated: Difficult to reach. Far from other places.
Labour: Workers, employed people.
Landscape: The scenery. What the land looks like
Less Developed: A poorer area where there are less
communications, services and where people have lower living standards.
Life Expectancy: The average number of years a person
can expect to live.
Limestone: A pale coloured rock which is permeable and
Literacy Rate: The number of people in a country who can
read and write.
Living Standards: How well people are able to live. It
is linked to the amount of money they earn.
Location: Where a place is.
Market: A place where raw materials and goods are sold.
Market Gardening: The growing of fruit, vegetables and
Meander: A bend in a river.
Mechanised: Work done by machines.
Mediterranean Climate: Places which have hot, dry
summers and mild, wet winters.
Migrant Workers: People who are born in one country and
travel to work in another.
Migration: The movement of people from one place to
another to live or to work.
Mining: The extraction or digging out of minerals from
deep under the ground, e.g. coal, iron ore.
Mouth: The end of a river where it flows into the sea.
Natural Harbour: a safe place for ships where the shape
of the coastline provides shelter from the wind and waves.
Natural Resources: Raw materials which are obtained from
the environment, e.g. water, coal or fertile soil.
Non-renewable Resources: Resources that can only be used
once, e.g. coal, oil.
Ordnance Survey: The official government organisation
for producing maps of the UK.
Peak: The top or summit of a hill or mountain.
Peninsula: A narrow piece of land jutting out into the
Permeable: A rock that will allow water to pass through
it such as limestone.
Physical Features/Activities: These are the result of
natural forces which shape the earth and effect the atmosphere.
Plan: A detailed map of a small area.
Plain: A low flat area.
Plateau: A high flat area.
Political Map: A map which shows countries, their
borders and main cities.
Pollution: Noise, dirt and other harmful substances
produced by people and machines which spoil an area.
Population Distribution: How people are spread out over
Population Explosion: A sudden rapid rise in the number
Population Growth: The increase in the number of
people in an area.
Population Growth Rate: A measure of how quickly the
number of people in an area increases.
Port: A place used by ships to load and unload people
Position: Where a place is.
Poverty: This is where people are poor, have no savings,
own very little and often have low living standards.
Power: Energy needed to work machines and to produce
Primary Activity: Collecting and using natural
resources, e.g. farming, fishing, forestry and mining.
Profit: making more than you need to survive.
Prosperous: This is where people are rich and well-off.
PullFactors: Things that attract people to live
in an area.
Push Factors: Things that make people want to leave an
Quarry: Where rock is cut from the surface of the land.
Raw Materials: Natural resources which are used to make
Recycling: Turning waste into something which is usable
Redevelop: To knock everything down and start all over
Reservoir: A human made lake which is used to store
water supplies, often behind a dam.
Relief: The shape of the land surface and its height.
Residential: A housing area where people live.
Resistant Rock: A hard rock which resists being worn
down and stands out as hills.
Resources: Things which can be useful to people. They
may be natural like coal and iron ore, or of other value like money and skilled
River Basin: The area drained by a river and its
Rural-to-urban Migration: The movement of people from
the countryside to the towns and cities.
Scenery: The appearance or view across the natural
Scenic: Attractive and interesting view of the
Seasonal Jobs: Employment that lasts for only part of
Secondary Activities: Where natural resources are made
or manufactured in factories into goods.
Services: These are used by people and include shops,
schools, buses and hospitals.
Service Industry: This is an industry where a service is
provided. It includes cleaners, shop and office workers, police, doctors and
Settlement: Where people choose to live.
Settlement Hierarchy: settlements ordered by their size:
hamlets, villages, towns, cities, conurbations.
Sheltered Site: A place shielded or protected from
stormy weather because it is low-lying or behind a hill.
Silt: Soil left behind after a river floods.
Site: The actual place where a settlement or a building
Situation: The wider area surrounding a settlement.
Slope: This is the angle at which the land is tilted.
Slopes can be gentle or steep.
Soil Erosion: The removal of soil by wind or water.
Source: The beginning of a river in the mountains.
Sparsely Populated: An area that has few people living
Spring: This is where water flows out of the ground.
Standard of Living: How well-off a person or a country
Subsistence: Growing just enough food for your own needs
with nothing left over to sell.
Suburb: An area of housing around the edge of a city.
Technology: New ways of using resources and developing
Tourist Attractions: Places where people travel for
interest and pleasure.
Trade: The exchange of goods or services.
Transport: Ways of moving people and goods from one
place to another.
Transportation: The movement of eroded material by
rivers, sea, ice and wind.
Tributary: A small river which flows into the main
True North: The direction which points to the North
Unemployment Rate: The number of people out of work for
each 1000 of the population.
Urban: Large area of houses, factories, etc..
Valley: An area of lowland with slopes either side. A
river flows along the lowest part.
Vegetation: All kinds of plants including shrubs and
Vineyard: Where grapes are grown to make wine.
Volcano: A cone-shaped mountain made up from lava and
Wildlife Habitats: The homes of plant and animals.