Barcelona Field Studies Centre

Súria Anticline

Geological Interest

Súria is within easy access from Barcelona and has two relatively small tectonic structures (the Mig-Mon anticline and the overlapping of the Tordell backthrust), a great variety of sedimentary rocks (gypsum, limestones, clays, sandstones and conglomerates) and is one of the few active mining areas in Catalonia. The position of the mine shafts in the core of the anticline assists an understanding of the relationship between structure and mining exploitation.


Air sight|view towards the East of the anticline of the
Mig-Mon. The south-east flank of the anticline dunks northwest more
than the flank does; treats itself|himself|herself then of a fold
asymmetrical vergent none the south-east. In the foreground the well
of Cabanasses can be seen.

This space occupies the valley of the Cardener in the NW of Súria near the confluence
with the stream of Hortons and the septentrional aspect|slope of the valley of the stream of the Tordell
waters down of the Torrent Fondo and little before its|his|her|their confluence with the
The zone surrounds the population of Súria and therefore him easily accessible from the
same urban kernel. In|To the oriental part of the geozona, which|who corresponds to the aspect|slope N
of the final stretch of the stream of the Tordell, is accessed for the road BP 4313 that
it|he|she follows|is the background|bottom of the valley or for the B-423 that rises for the ridge that marks the limit
septentrional of the geozona. The west part of the geozona him crossed for the road C-1410 and from this the anticline can be observed in the left shore of
The ground that it|he|she occupies comes off in an almost whole way distributed among ground dedicated itself|himself to the
mining exploitation, policeman alone and agricultural sun. Many outcrops of interest him
they locate the the slopes fluvial or in those of antròpic origin of the roads.
The ground him mostly policeman and the zones of exploitation belong to Iberpotash S.A.
(that depen of the multinational Dead Sea Works Ltd.).

The saline deposits of Súria together with those of Cardona, Sallent or Balsareny
they belong to the called Catalan potassic basin. In turn this basin
has to be set in a context in a more extense area since they are part of the set of
evaporítics materials that deposited in the basin of the Ebre during the Eocene
superior. The basin of the Ebre in geological meaning|sense was one he|she|it broadens basin that from
of the that now him Navarra spread until Catalonia. It|He|She was an interior basin
surrounded by relays|reliefs in phase of formation|training that the Pirineus in the north, directed, were
W-E, the Catalànids in the E and directed SW OF IT and the Iberian Mountain Range in the S, directed
These mountain ranges therefore surrounded a basin in form more or less
triangular that it|he|she had temporary connections with the open sea. This basin that
it persisted during all the Paleogene it|he|she kept on picking up the product materials of the erosion
of the surrounding relays|reliefs. The extension of the basin that occupied the sea varied
sensitively along the Paleogene, with periods of transgression and other of
regression. One of the most significant moments for the evolution of the basin people go
producing to the superior|upper Eocene where reblida of sediments subtracted a sea basin
interior disconnected to the open sea (endorreica) that gradually was gone
evaporating with the consequent concentration and haste|precipitation of salts.
The dipòsitS of sulphated salts had one he|she|it broadens presence in the basin however
the chloridized ones concentrated in a directed groove W-E of not very more than 40
km of width that understanding itself|himself|herself from Catalonia to Navarra it|he|she had two subbasins
main where potassic salts, one in Navarra and the other one will be deposited to the
Catalonia headquarters. These saline formations|training accumulated in the form of strata|strati
they were covered later by terrigens materials (alluvial sediments
continental of reddish colors). This evolution conditioned that the
saline formations|training came off concealed under the thick sequences of
underlying continental sediments.
The evolution of the basin of the Ebre does not limit itself to working like a passive basin
where the sediments but the depositats strata|strati were accumulated in the feet of the
mountainous relays|reliefs were tectonitzats for effect of the orogenic movements.
The episode of folds and overlapping that it|he|she affected the near the antecountry and that
it occurred finally of the Paleogene and beginning of the Neogene, it|he|she is what they have conditioned the configuration of the deposits of salt where accumulations are produced in the kernels of
anticlinal folds unhooked from the infralying eocene strata|strati.
Wing spilling south of the Pirineu the effects of the tectonics keep on moving in the space
and in the time|weather of N in S, so that at the end of the Paleogene (Sup eocene.) Them
effects were left to feel fine and all in zones placed almost in the center of the
basin. It|He|She is the effect of a tectonic disturbance where there are accumulations of salt
double. On the one hand the strata|strati are unhooked with facility at level of the basis
of the capes|layers of the salts, fact that favors the creation of folds and overlapping.
For the other one, the salts with its|his|her|their capacity to flow accumulate in big masses,
preferably to|in the kernels of folds and that they can promote towards the given area|surface the
his|hers|theirs great capacity to flow and its|his|her|their casualty|sick leave month density. This movement
ascendant of the salt names halocinesi and can end up forming saline doms, or
diapirs when the salt manages to perforate the underlying capes|layers.
The anticlines of the Chalk|Plaster, of Súria and of Cardona are representative of this
tectonic situation. The case of Súria replies in a complex associated anticlinal fold to
inverse faults (overlapping) like for example the fault of the Tordell.
Anticline, Conglomerate, Diapirisme, saline Dom, Erosion, Eocene, Overlapping
fluvial, Stratum|Stratus, Stratigraphy, Evaporita, alluvial Facies, Chalk|Plaster, Stoneware, Stoneware, Fault,
Halita, Halocinesi, Lamination, Lutita, Neotectonics, Fold, Quaternary,
Retro-overlapping, Tectonic, Silvinita, Salt of the salt, Terrassa fluvial.
Paleogen Des de l'Eocè Bartonià (41. 2- 37.2) until the Priabonià (37.2 - 34).
The sleep salts 37.2 aprox The alpine tectonics him Eoc. Sup - Oligocena
Diapirisme (Paleog) - Neogene
Current|Up-to-date morphology, fluvial erosion - quaternary
The interest of the zone of Súria is stratigraphical and tectonic. Inserted into the zone of
folds and overlapping of the Catalan potassic basin, it|he|she shows two structures
tectonics (the anticline of the Mig-Mon and the retro-overlapping of the Tordell), one big|great
variety of rocks you would settle (chalks|plasters, limestones, stoneware, clays and conglomerates) and one of the few mining exploitation in assets that there are to
Catalonia. The position of the mining wells in the anticlinal kernels allows to see and
understanding|including the relation|relationship between the structure and the situation of the mining exploitation.
Touristic interest: 3
Didactic interest (level informative and of basic education): 3.5
Didactic interest (education at levels half and superior): 4.5
Scientific interest: 4.5
It|He|She has geological characteristics very similar to those that are produced to
the anticline of Cardona, although the salt does not arrive to extruïr how it|he|she makes it in the mountain of
Salt: The outcrops of the potassic salts have to be observed in the galleries of
the exploitation and in area|surface the most evident is the inclination of the strata|strati
drawing the anticline of Mig Mon and the presence of overlapping associated with the fold.
Therefore treats itself|himself|herself of a situation typical of the together antecountry and correlacionable with
the folds and overlapping of neck of Terradelles, although being here in a zone
more external the tectonics is conditioned by the produced dehooking to
level of the strata|strati of salt.
Among the numerous mines of salt that exist all over the my Jewry to mention
the example of the mine of salt of Wieliczka, in Poland that due to the
singular antròpiques modifications generated in the galleries it has happened one
of the recognized seats|towns as a patrimony of the humanity and that it|he|she exemplifies the
often association of interest of natural origin elements with the generated ones for the my
of the man.
The ancient|antique kernel of Súria, constitutes a set of interest in the presence of the castle
of the Guard|Watch and for the ancient|antique parish church with Romanesque signs|vestiges. Aside
law|right of the Cardener in the south of Súria there is the Plan of the Reglove, of interest
fundamentally botanical and faunístic.
One of the most critical and significant moments of he|she|it chronicles it|him|her geological of the OF IT of the
peninsula Ibérica him the final sea regression that converts the sea basin that it|he|she occupied the basin of the Ebre in an endorreica interior basin that goes to receiving
continental exclusively material ones. The thick sequences of materials of
colors predominantly gray with fossil sea fauna abundance (Lutecià-
Bartonià), not aflorants here in area|surface, they are covered in this sector for the
terrígenes sequences of reddish keys|tonality of the formations|training Barbastre and Artés
Between these two sedimentary environments the closing and evaporation are produced
of the eocene sea of the basin of the Ebre with the consequent accumulation of evaporites.
For this reason the seat|town of Súria and other of the Catalan potassic basin they have
special significance as a geological record|registry since the rocks there deposited
they have a very valuable information of the drastic modifications in the system
deposicional produced in an interval of little more than 5 a million of years.
Not less important the paper|role is than the saline formations|training they play the the last ones
beats|pulsations of the Pyrenean tectonics that they motivate to|in the to act as level of
dehooking that the tectonics manages to manifest in the form of folds in the beautiful one
half of the basin of the Ebre. Therefore in the regional context Súria can be placed in the
basin of the Ebre, but analogously to the anticline of Bellmunt also he|she|it represents joint
with Cardona and the anticline of the Chalk|Plaster the edge|hem affected by folds of the antecountry. The case
from Súria he|she|it replies in a complex anticlinal fold associated with overlapping, the maximum
exponent of which the inverse fault of the Tordell is.
The geology of Súria tea a transcendence that surpasses the interest in the context of
the geological evolution of Catalonia. Within the framework of the knowledge of the geology it|he|she is
an almost only example of the evolution of a sedimentary basin in the that some
stages of deposition predominantly in sea environment evolve into a system
endorreic in the that the evaporation of the sea basin is produced. This one big|great has
interest since in the strata|strati all transformations are recorded of
way that for the order and deposicionals sequences of the evaporítiques rocks him
he|she|it can deduce perfectly the variations in composition and concentration of the salt
dissolved. Súria is also a valid example at world-wide level of tectonics
of antecountry conditioned by dehooking at levels of rocks
evaporítiques. One is also from the best examples at European level of saline diapir HISTORICAL SIGNIFICATION
One of the outcrops can be considered emblematic of the Geology of Catalonia.
With less importance than Montserrat, however the singularity of the
composition of these rocks and the forms of erosion for dissolution that him
they produce it|he|she has been conditioned one of the microlandscapes to form more singulars of
Catalonia. Object of visit has been traditionally not only on delivery
of interested in the geology but also for everybody interested in forms
singular ones landscape.
The outcrops would be studied initially by the mining companies themselves and
of this datum him they derive some publications like those of Marín (1923) or of
Larragan (1923), with datum of surveys, or those of Meléndez (1923), with
information about the composition of the salts. Apart from different internal reports
attendants for companies, not him until more recently than the knowledge of the
sedimetologia and the tectonics of the potassic basin of Cardona it|he|she has been known
with more depth and it has been able to happen|pass to|in the category of model of special
geological significance. Among other they have contributed to this fact the theses doctoral of
Pueyo 1995 and that of Sans 1999. Has to be mentioned that at level of utlització of the
Mountain of Salt as a didactic resource for the geology a paper|role has played
fundamental the geological guide of Solé-Sabarís.
This seat|town traditionally is part of the geological itineraries that they have for
goal to examine the sedimentology of the Conca de l'Ebre, like for example the "I
Congreso Español del Grupo del Terciario".

Seen towards the East of the overlapping of the Tordell. Its|His|Her|Their knack|trace deduces|follows in the limit among
the materials of white and red color of the part inferior of the image. In the right they observe themselves
the facilities and escombrera of the current|up-to-date mine. (photo M. Sans)

Sight|View of the overlapping of the Tordell. This overlapping dunks none the South and he|she|it puts
chalks|plasters of white color about stoneware more ancient|antique of red color. (photo M. Sans)
Detail of an outcrop of a directed overlapping none the north in the east of the people|village of Súria.
This overlapping is related in depth with the overlapping of the Tordell. In the
superior|upper block observes a small anticline. (photo M. Sans)

Sight|View of the anticline of the Mig-Mon and of the well of Cabanasses, placed in the north of the people|village of

Folds in the inland|inside of the mine of Cabanasses. The white
materials are capes|layers of halita, the gray levels of clay
and the cape|layer reds of carnalita.
(photo M. Sans)

Detail of a fold of the inland|inside of the mine of Cabanasses. The white materials are capes|layers
of halita and the grays capes|layers of clays. (photo M. Sans)
Disharmony in the folding of materials different to the mine of well IV placed in the south of
the population of Súria. The white capes|layers correspond in|on halita, the gray ones in|on clays and the
red in|on silvinita. (photo M. Sans;)

Cape|Layer of carnalita in|on the mine of
Cabanasses. This cape|layer is a lot deformed, fact that him
woman this bretxificat aspect|look. The cape|layer of gray
color clays is also fragmented.
(photo M. Sans; 1995)

Image of the escombrera of the current|up-to-date mine of

Given antropitzada is a space placed in a zone intensely its|his|her|their situation
surrounding the urban kernel of Súria and next to the exploitation of salts and to|in zones
industrialists. Moreover, the zone is crossed by a complex knot of avenues. At present it|he|she is
a space of impossible cataloging as natural space and the protection of the space
it should be produced preserving some of the outcrops of the slopes from road,
and eventually authorizing one of the galleries of the mines to be visited.
The road transformation of this sector has left the outcrops of interest in one
been little attractive to|in its|his|her|their utilization as a didactic resource. The mining exploitation
it|he|she has left strong negative impacts in the landscape (especially for the
modifications of the topography produced by the accumulation of saline runams).
Also the presence of gizzards and industrial facilities they contribute to
degrading the environment.
In order to facilitate the use of this geozona as a didactic geological resource it|he|she would be necessary
preserving or to improve the state of some of the outcrops of the slopes of road, and
eventually to authorize one of the galleries of the mines to be visited. Them
main outcrops stand in|on the stressed bend that draws the C-1410 in|on the part
Westerner of the geozona, at the exit of the population for the BP-4313 and at the part
Asian of the geozona, where this road crosses the stream of the Tordell.
It shows|presents enough elements in order to, together with the seat|town of Cardona,
being part of a space patrimony of the humanity. The mine of salt of Wieliczka to
They are Poland or the exploitation of Salkamergut de Hallstatt-Dachstein (Austria)
two included seats|towns as a world-wide Patrimony for the Unesco and where a patrimony
cultural nuclea about some ancient|antique exploitation of salt.

Diapir: An anticlinal fold in which a mobile core, such as salt or gypsum, has pierced through the more brittle overlying rock.

Source: Albert Martínez Rius, Generalitat de Catalunya Departament de Medi Ambient