Summary of Fieldwork Safety Guidelines
"Whatever the length and nature of the visit, regular head counting should take place, particularly before leaving any venue," the department says.
And all supervisors should carry a list of all the pupils and adults on the trip.
The government's recommended ratio is of one adult for every ten to 15 pupils in school years four to six (nine to 11 year olds).
For years one to three (six to eight year olds) the ratio should rise to one adult to every six pupils.
Parents should be given full details about the trip and must sign a consent form before their child can to take part in the trip.
They should also give authorisation for emergency medical treatment.
The trip leader is advised to complete a risk assessment form - even if just for a visit to the local museum - and pass on a copy to the school governors, head teacher and local education authority.
Schools using private companies, such as an activity centre, for their trips should make sure the provider has a licence for the activities it offers.
Learn the language
When organising a trip abroad, schools are advised that it is "good practice" to carry out an exploratory visit to the location.
If this is not possible, the group leader is advised to collect as much information as possible about the area.
One of the adults on the trip should be able to speak and read the language of the country in question, the Department for Education suggests.
If not, one must learn enough of the language to hold a basic conversation and to know how to express themselves in the event of an emergency, the department says.
Schools are also advised that pupils should have a basic knowledge of the local language.
And they should carry a note in the language in question, giving details of their party, in case they get lost.
But despite the strict guidelines, brought in after a "number of tragic incidents involving school children" - such as the Lyme Regis canoeing disaster in 1993 which took the lives of four teenagers - the department is keen to stress the benefits of taking pupils away from the school environment.
"The potential hazards... should not discourage teachers," the Department for Education says.
"Pupils can derive a good deal of educational benefit from taking part in visits with their schools."
But even the strictest of guidelines cannot cover every eventuality and with a weight of responsibility and a number of high profile cases concerning school trip safety, teachers may be more and more reluctant to take the risk.
Source: BBC News July 2001